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Charlie Dunbar Broad
* 30. Dezember 1887 in Harlesden, Middlesex; † 11. März 1971, britischer Philosoph. – BroadWikipedia
“Lastly, did Bacon provide any logical justification for the principles and methods which he elicited and which scientists assume and use? He did not, and he never saw that it was necessary to do so. There is a skeleton in the cupboard of Inductive Logic, which Bacon never suspected and Hume first exposed to view. Kant conducted the most elaborate funeral in history, and called Heaven and Earth and the Noumena under the Earth to witness that the skeleton was finally disposed of. But, when the dust of the funeral procession had subsided and the last strains of the Transcendental Organ had died away, the coffin was found to be empty and the skeleton in its old place. Mill discretely closed the door of the cupboard, and with infinite tact turned the conversation into more cheerful channels. Mr Johnson and Mr Keynes may fairly be said to have reduced the skeleton to the dimensions of a mere skull. But that obstinate caput mortuum still awaits the undertaker who will give it Christian burial. May we venture to hope that when Bacon's next centenary is celebrated the great work which he set going will be completed; and that Inductive Reasoning, which has long been the glory of Science, will have ceased to be the scandal of Philosophy?”
Broads Abschluss eines Vortrags am 5. Oktober 1926 in Cambridge zum The Bacon Tercentenary (dreihundertster Todestag von Francis Bacon, † 9. April 1626) BroadOnline
C. D. Broad: The Philosophy of Francis Bacon. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1926. Reprinted in Ethics and The History of Philosophy, London: Routledge, 1952.

William K. Clifford
4.5. 1845 Exeter – 3.3. 1879 London – CliffordWilliam Kingdon Clifford
   "To sum up: it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence.
   If a man, holding a belief which he was taught in childhood or persuaded of afterwards, keeps down and pushes away any doubts which arise about it in his mind, purposely avoids the reading of books and the company of men that call into question or discuss it, and regards as impious those questions which cannot easily be asked without disturbing it—the life of that man is one long sin against mankind."
"The Ethics of Belief" Contemporary Review, 1877. Nachdruck in Leslie Stephen, Frederick Pollock, Hg.: William K. Clifford, Lectures and Essays (1879, 1886). Und in The Ethics of Belief and Other Essays. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 1999.
James Conant
* 10. Juni 1958 in Kyōto, US-amerikanischer Philosoph – ConantJames Ferguson Conant
Über philosophische Probleme

„Stellen Sie sich ein Schachproblem vor, bei dem uns gesagt wird, Schachmatt sei in zwei Zügen möglich. Nur wenige Figuren stehen noch auf dem Brett und wir können uns ohne Mühe davon überzeugen, dass Schachmatt in zwei Zügen hier nicht möglich ist. Aber es wird uns dennoch gesagt: Schachmatt ist hier in zwei Zügen möglich! Wir glauben, dass dies nicht möglich ist, haben aber zugleich Grund zu denken, dass es möglich sein muss. Philosophische Probleme ähneln solchen Problemen.”

S. 33. „Was Philosophie ist, ist eine philosophische Frage. Ein Gespräch mit James Conant”. Information Philosophie 3/2016. S. 30-37

Kevin M. Dear
Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter am Institut für Humanwissenschaften, Universität Paderborn – ConantKevin M. Dear
„Die Moral ist den Menschen nicht vorgegeben, weder durch eine wie auch immer geartete religiöse »Offenbarung«, durch das mit Vernunft »einsehbare« Naturrecht, oder eine in den Genen des Menschen »eingravierte« Verhaltenslehre.”

S. 121. „Zwischen Ein– und Ausladung: Peter Singer in Deutschland”. Aufklärung und Kritik 3/2016. S. 114–125. Siehe dazu Dear Naturalistischer Fehlschluss – Sein-Sollen Fehlschluss
Antony Flew
* 11. Februar 1923 London – 8. April 2010 Reading; britischer Philosoph
FlewAntony FlewFlew Thinking about Thinking

„If, therefore, we want in a quite straightforward way to advance understanding and to communicate, we shall not propose new senses going right against the grain of current usage.” Thinking about Thinking S. 77
„better thinking, like charity and over-population, begins at home” Thinking about Thinking S. 85
„We cannot assume, either that what applies to the whole of some group taken collectively applies equally to any and every individual member of that group, or the other way about. To take another example: anyone can park here at any time; but it does not follow that everyone can do so simultaneously, or even successively.” Thinking about Thinking S. 89
„it is as wrong here as it is everywhere else to argue that if I cannot do everything, then I cannot, and am not obliged to, do anything.” Thinking about Thinking S. 113
„Being in a position to know is not always, or even most often, a matter of being able to deduce what is known from premises also known. Clearly it could not be. For on this assumption knowledge would be impossible, since it would require the completion of an infinite series of deductions from premises all of which would first to be deduced from others, in turn first deduced from others, and so on” Thinking about Thinking S. 115
Peter Thomas Geach
* 29. März 1916 in London; britischer Philosoph und Logiker – geachPeter Thomas Geach
"One needs no excuse for being a preacher of rationality;
there are too few such preachers, not too many." Reason and Argument. Oxford: Blackwell, 1976. S. xi
A. C. Grayling
Anthony Clifford Grayling; * 3. April 1949; britischer Philosoph und Schriftsteller – geachA. C. Grayling
Graylinh Against All Gods: Six Polemics on Religion and an Essay on KindnessGraylinh Russell: A Very Short Introduction
„I do not believe that there are any such things as gods and goddesses, for exactly the same reasons as I do not believe there are fairies, goblins or sprites, and these reasons should be obvious to anyone over the age of ten.“
penroseAndrew Zak Williams: Faith no more, New Statesman, 25. Juli 2011
Gilbert Harman
* 1938 US-Amerikanischer Philosoph, Princeton University – harmanPrincetonharmanWikipedia
"People differ from other animals in having language", S. vii
"We are justified in continuing to believe something unless we have a special reason to change our minds. The hypotheses the sceptic discusses are not equally reasonable, since only one of them is already believed", S. 22
"The best explanation of its seeming to you that certain things occurred in the past is that they did occur and you remember them", S. 189
Thought. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1973. – harman Rezension
"Fine distinctions made in ordinary judgments become blurred when these judgments are made in a philosophical context", S. 164
"Knowledge, Inference, and Explanation". American Philosophical Quarterly 5:3, 1968 S. 164-173.
John Hawthorne
HawthorneOxford UniversityHawthorneWikipedia
“If you put a gun to my head I’ll go with that theory”. APA Pacific conference 2003; Hawthornequote.
Jaakko Hintikka
* 12. Januar 1929 in Vantaa, Finnland – HintikkaBoston UniversityHintikkaWikipedia
"The facts that the so-called laws of logic are not »laws of thought« in the sense of natural laws seems to be generally admitted nowadays."
Knowledge and Belief: An Introduction to the Logic of the Two Notions. London: King's College, 2005.
[1962, Cornell University], S. 30
David A. Johnson
* 1952, Associate Professor of Philosophy an der Yeshiva University, New York
„It is remarkable how many famous arguments can be refuted essentially just by stating them carefully. How rarely this is done.” S. x.
“I once bought a ticket in a rather large New York State lottery, because I wanted to know what it felt like to be irrational.”, S. 134
David Johnson: Truth Without Paradox, Johnson Rezension
John George Kemeny
(Ungarisch: Kemény János György) 31 Mai 1926 – 26. Dezember 1992 – PojmanWikipedia
„The problem of induction is one of the most hotly debated issues of modern philosophy. It is certainly the central issue in any philosophy of science.“
(S. 711) Kemeny, John G. (1963): "Carnap's Theory of Probability and Induction". In: P.A. Schilpp, Hg.: The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. La Salle, IL: Open Court, S. 711-738. Kemeny Rezension
Drew V. McDermott
* 1949, Professor of Computer Science at Yale University – PojmanWikipediaPojmanYale University
„Traditional logics suffer from the »monotonicity problem«: new axioms never invalidate old theorems.“ McDermott, Drew (1982): "Nonmonotonic Logic II: Nonmonotonic Modal Theories". Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 29:1, S. 33-57, S. 33.
Louis P. Pojman
22. April 1935 - 15. Oktober 2005 – PojmanLouis P. PojmanPojmanWikipedia
"I love epistemology. Its problems and puzzles keep me awake at night, entertaining me, and sometimes wearing me down." S. xi
Edo Pivcevic
„... nothing can be rationally believed that cannot be rationally explained“ (S. 2)
„Science is the business of inventing models in terms of which the observed phenomena can most efficiently be explained, but no such model excludes the possibility of alternative explanations“ (S. 8)
„To say that things 'necessarily' happen as they do because they are part of the original design is to beg the question of why they should have been included in the original design in the first place“ (S. 274)
Aus: The Reason Why. A Theory of Philosophical Explanation, Pivcevic Rezension
Alvin Plantinga
* 15. November 1932 Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, US-amerikanischer Philosoph
“Dawkins and Daniel Dennett [...] are the touchdown twins of current academic atheism.”
Auf Dawkins Richard Dawkins: The God Delusion gemünzt:
“You might say that some of his [Dawkins'] forays into philosophy are at best sophomoric, but that would be unfair to sophomores”.
PlantingaAlvin Plantinga: "The Dawkins Confusion. Naturalism 'ad absurdum' ". Christianity Today 1.3.2007
John Skorupski
* 19 September 1946 – SkorupskiSt. Andrews UniversitySkorupskiWikipedia
"Against an absolute sceptic nothing can or needs to be said."
Vorwort zu Bertrand Russell: The Problems of Philosophy. 1998 [1912]. S. ix. – Skorupski Zitate Bertrand Russell
Friedrich Waismann
21. 3. 1896 Wien – 4. 11. 1959 Oxford, GB; Mathematiker, Physiker, Philosoph
"... in philosophy there are no proofs; there are no theorems; and there are no questions which can be decided, Yes or No." S. 1
"No philosophic argument ends with a Q.E.D. However forceful, it never forces. There is no bullying in philosophy, neither with the stick of logic nor with the stick of language." S. 29
Alle Zitate aus: How I See Philosophy. London 1968.
Dawkins Anfang

Waismann
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