* 30. Dezember 1887 in Harlesden, Middlesex; † 11. März 1971, britischer Philosoph. – Wikipedia
did Bacon provide any logical justification for the principles and
methods which he elicited and which scientists assume and use? He did
not, and he never saw that it was necessary to do so. There is a
skeleton in the cupboard of Inductive Logic, which Bacon never
suspected and Hume first exposed to view. Kant conducted the most
elaborate funeral in history, and called Heaven and Earth and the
Noumena under the Earth to witness that the skeleton was finally
disposed of. But, when the dust of the funeral procession had subsided
and the last strains of the Transcendental Organ had died away, the
coffin was found to be empty and the skeleton in its old place. Mill
discretely closed the door of the cupboard, and with infinite tact
turned the conversation into more cheerful channels. Mr Johnson and Mr
Keynes may fairly be said to have reduced the skeleton to the
dimensions of a mere skull. But that obstinate caput mortuum still
awaits the undertaker who will give it Christian burial. May we venture
to hope that when Bacon's next centenary is celebrated the great work
which he set going will be completed; and that Inductive Reasoning,
which has long been the glory of Science, will have ceased to be the
scandal of Philosophy?”
Broads Abschluss eines Vortrags am 5. Oktober 1926 in Cambridge zum The Bacon Tercentenary (dreihundertster Todestag von Francis Bacon, † 9. April 1626) Online
C. D. Broad: The Philosophy of Francis Bacon. Cambridge, Cambridge UP, 1926. Reprinted in Ethics and The History of Philosophy, London: Routledge, 1952.
4.5. 1845 Exeter – 3.3. 1879 London – William Kingdon Clifford
sum up: it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe
anything upon insufficient evidence.
If a man, holding a belief which he was taught in childhood or persuaded of afterwards, keeps down and pushes away any doubts which arise about it in his mind, purposely avoids the reading of books and the company of men that call into question or discuss it, and regards as impious those questions which cannot easily be asked without disturbing it—the life of that man is one long sin against mankind."
"The Ethics of Belief" Contemporary Review, 1877. Nachdruck in Leslie Stephen, Frederick Pollock, Hg.: William K. Clifford, Lectures and Essays (1879, 1886). Und in The Ethics of Belief and Other Essays. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books, 1999.
* 11. Februar 1923 London – 8. April 2010 Reading; britischer Philosoph
– Antony Flew – Thinking about Thinking
|„If, therefore, we want in a quite straightforward way to advance understanding and to communicate, we shall not propose new senses going right against the grain of current usage.” Thinking about Thinking S. 77|
|„better thinking, like charity and over-population, begins at home” Thinking about Thinking S. 85|
|„We cannot assume, either that what applies to the whole of some group taken collectively applies equally to any and every individual member of that group, or the other way about. To take another example: anyone can park here at any time; but it does not follow that everyone can do so simultaneously, or even successively.” Thinking about Thinking S. 89|
|„it is as wrong here as it is everywhere else to argue that if I cannot do everything, then I cannot, and am not obliged to, do anything.” Thinking about Thinking S. 113|
in a position
to know is not always, or even most often, a matter of being able to
deduce what is known from premises also known. Clearly it could not be.
For on this assumption knowledge would be impossible, since it would
require the completion of an infinite series of deductions from
premises all of which would first to be deduced from others, in turn
first deduced from others, and so on” Thinking
about Thinking S. 115
* 29. März 1916 in London; britischer Philosoph und Logiker – Peter Thomas Geach
needs no excuse for being a preacher of rationality;
there are too few such preachers, not too many." Reason and Argument. Oxford: Blackwell, 1976. S. xi
|A. C. Grayling
Anthony Clifford Grayling; * 3. April 1949; britischer Philosoph und Schriftsteller – A. C. Grayling
Against All Gods: Six Polemics on Religion and an Essay on Kindness – Russell: A Very Short Introduction
not believe that there are any such things as gods and goddesses, for
exactly the same reasons as I do not believe there are fairies, goblins
or sprites, and these reasons should be obvious to anyone over the age
Andrew Zak Williams: Faith no more, New Statesman, 25. Juli 2011
* 1938 US-Amerikanischer Philosoph, Princeton University – Princeton – Wikipedia
|"People differ from other animals
in having language", S. vii
"We are justified in continuing to believe something unless we have a special reason to change our minds. The hypotheses the sceptic discusses are not equally reasonable, since only one of them is already believed", S. 22
"The best explanation of its seeming to you that certain things occurred in the past is that they did occur and you remember them", S. 189
Thought. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1973. – Rezension
distinctions made in ordinary judgments become blurred when these
judgments are made in a philosophical context", S. 164
"Knowledge, Inference, and Explanation". American Philosophical Quarterly 5:3, 1968 S. 164-173.
Oxford University – Wikipedia
|“If you put a gun to my head I’ll go with
that theory”. APA
Pacific conference 2003; quote.
* 12. Januar 1929 in Vantaa, Finnland – Boston University – Wikipedia
facts that the so-called laws of logic are not »laws of thought« in the
sense of natural laws seems to be generally admitted nowadays."
Knowledge and Belief: An Introduction to the Logic of the Two Notions. London: King's College, 2005.
[1962, Cornell University], S. 30
* 1952, Associate Professor of Philosophy an der Yeshiva University, New York
| „It is
remarkable how many famous arguments can be refuted essentially just by
stating them carefully. How rarely this is done.” S. x.
“I once bought a ticket in a rather large New York State lottery, because I wanted to know what it felt like to be irrational.”, S. 134
David Johnson: Truth Without Paradox, Rezension
(Ungarisch: Kemény János György) 31 Mai 1926 – 26. Dezember 1992 – Wikipedia
problem of induction is one of the most hotly debated issues of modern
philosophy. It is certainly the central issue in any philosophy of
(S. 711) Kemeny, John G. (1963): "Carnap's Theory of Probability and Induction". In: P.A. Schilpp, Hg.: The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap. La Salle, IL: Open Court, S. 711-738. Rezension
* 1949, Professor of Computer Science at Yale University – Wikipedia – Yale University
logics suffer from the »monotonicity problem«: new axioms never
invalidate old theorems.“ McDermott, Drew
(1982): "Nonmonotonic Logic II: Nonmonotonic Modal Theories". Journal
of the Association for Computing Machinery 29:1, S. 33-57, S.
22. April 1935 - 15. Oktober 2005 – Louis P. Pojman – Wikipedia
|"I love epistemology. Its problems and puzzles keep me awake at night, entertaining me, and sometimes wearing me down." S. xi|
nothing can be rationally believed that cannot be rationally explained“
„Science is the business of inventing models in terms of which the observed phenomena can most efficiently be explained, but no such model excludes the possibility of alternative explanations“ (S. 8)
„To say that things 'necessarily' happen as they do because they are part of the original design is to beg the question of why they should have been included in the original design in the first place“ (S. 274)
Aus: The Reason Why. A Theory of Philosophical Explanation, Rezension
* 15. November 1932 Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA, US-amerikanischer Philosoph
and Daniel Dennett [...] are the touchdown twins of current academic
Auf Richard Dawkins: The God Delusion gemünzt:
“You might say that some of his [Dawkins'] forays into philosophy are at best sophomoric, but that would be unfair to sophomores”.
Alvin Plantinga: "The Dawkins Confusion. Naturalism 'ad absurdum' ". Christianity Today 1.3.2007
* 19 September 1946 – St. Andrews University – Wikipedia
|"Against an absolute sceptic
nothing can or needs to be said."
Vorwort zu Bertrand Russell: The Problems of Philosophy. 1998 . S. ix. – Zitate Bertrand Russell
21. 3. 1896 Wien – 4. 11. 1959 Oxford, GB; Mathematiker, Physiker, Philosoph
philosophy there are no proofs; there are no theorems; and there are no
questions which can be decided, Yes or No." S.
"No philosophic argument ends with a Q.E.D. However forceful, it never forces. There is no bullying in philosophy, neither with the stick of logic nor with the stick of language." S. 29
Alle Zitate aus: How I See Philosophy. London 1968.